Pakistan is not just facing food insecurity with increasing population, but it is also facing water limitations. Wheat demand is also increasing as the world’s population grows. As a result, drought-tolerant and high-yielding wheat genotypes are required. Wheat breeders are aiming to maximize production in water-stressed environments. The severity of dry season affects the output of wheat. Seed germination is the first stage of development and is sensitive to water shortages. Confronting numerous types of dry seasons is an extraordinary test for a plant breeder.
To combat the decline in yield potential, genotypes’ genetic makeup must be re-shuffled in order for these genotypes to acquire an optimal genetic composition that may allow plants to produce more yield in the presence of changing climate conditions. Root length is a distinguishing and relevant trait for selection in the breeding program for the creation of drought tolerance and high-yielding genotypes in wheat. There are two types of root processes in wheat plants. The seminal root system begins as soon as the seed is germinated. Adventitious roots emerge from the basal nodes after germination. The root breaks through the coleorhizae as the seed germinates, followed by the formation of 45 lateral seminal roots. As a result of the lack of water, plants must change their morphological, physiological, and biochemical processes by changing, turning on, or turning off gene expression as a coping mechanism.
In drought circumstances, root lengths in examined germplasm varied from 15.33 cm to 35.90 cm (Pasban-90). In drought, the fresh root weight characteristic of spring wheat genotypes tested varied from 0.21 g to 4.93 g (Ass-11). The findings for the dry roots weights attribute in the germplasm tested varied from 0.07 g to 1.26 g. (Chakwal-50). The length of the roots is a critical factor in selecting drought-resistant cultivars. The key for developing drought-resistant wheat cultivars is genetic unevenness in root length. In a drought, lines with the longest root length performed well. Wheat lines with longer root lengths have shown to be more resistant to water shortages. During the research, it was discovered that genotypes with the ideal root length performed better in water scarcity situations.